By Dr. Rita Khanna
The Yamas and Niyamas are described by the great Saint Maharishi Patanjali in his Yoga Sutras. He describes the eight steps of Raja Yoga, which are known as Ashtanga Yoga. The Yamas and Niyamas are the first two steps of Ashtanga Yoga. The Yamas are meant to harmonize the social and external interactions in one’s life, whereas the Niyamas create a sense of discipline in one’s inner life. Maharishi Patanjali has given five Yamas and five Niyamas, which are as follows:
YAMAS (SOCIAL CODE)
1. Ahimsa (non-violence)
2. Satya (truthfulness)
3. Asteya (honesty)
5. Brahmacharya (celibacy)
The meaning of Ahimsa is absence of the violent nature in our personality. Satya refers to the awareness of what is correct, right, and true – that manifests from within and the ability to express it. The meaning of Asteya is being honest with ourselves, where the true nature of the personality is seen and experienced. Aparigraha means non-attachment. The meaning of Brahmacharya is control over the sexual desire. These five disciplines constitute the Yamas, which are generally translated as ‘moral code of conduct’ by the layman, but actually mean ‘Yogic self-control’.
NIYAMAS (PERSONAL CODE)
1. Saucha (cleanliness)
2. Santosha (contentment)
3. Tapas (austerity)
4. Swadhyaya (self-study)
5. Ishwara Pranidhana (surrender to God)
The first Niyama is Saucha, and apart from meaning physical cleanliness and cleanliness of one’s living area, Saucha is also geared to creating the feeling of cleanliness within the mind. Santosha means to be happy with whatever one has, to enjoy living in the present moment, without craving or desiring anything more. Tapas means seeking out the pure essence of matter, like the process of firing gold to remove the impurities and extract the pure gold. Swadhyaya means the analysis and knowledge of our own personality, being aware of our individual qualities, strengths, and weaknesses. Ishwara pranidhana means belief in a higher reality and surrender to God.
Depression is a mood disorder. Our mood is mainly determined by our emotions. Emotions are positive and negative, and play an important role in our personality. In some circumstances, we wish to eradicate negative emotions from our personality, but we cannot. Whenever we feel our negative emotions are giving trouble or creating a problem, we need the ability to manage them because uncontrolled negative emotions result in different disorders – among which is depression. A basic cause of depression is the lack of discipline in life. Yamas are external disciplines and Niyamas are inner disciplines. Through these two steps, we can learn to develop our personality in a better way, and can eradicate depressive symptoms.
CAUSES OF DEPRESSION
1. Low stress tolerance
2. Dependence on support and sympathy
3. Poor ego function
5. Guilt feelings
6. Pre-morbid personality
HOW CAN WE CONTROL DEPRESSION THROUGH
YAMAS AND NIYAMAS
LOW STRESS TOLERANCE (SATYA AND SANTOSHA)
The first cause of depression is low stress tolerance. Man is a social human being. He is living in society, and he has to have contact with different types of personalities and situations, and must try to adjust to them. Adjustment must happen, whether the situations are difficult or not. Through the practice of Satya, we can increase our tolerance level, because through the practice of truthfulness, we can know and understand our limitations and weaknesses and accept them – thereby releasing the built-up tensions within us and increasing our physical and mental energy. Through this increased energy, we can find more creative ways of overcoming or adjusting the negative traits of our personality. Also, we have to be ready to accept any negative condition, any type of sad or bad event we experience. Through the practice of Santosha, we will be able to face any unpleasant or negative situation.
DEPENDENCE ON SUPPORT AND SYMPATHY
(APARIGRAHA AND SWADHYAYA)
The second cause of depression is dependence on support and sympathy. Why do we need support and sympathy? If we are very attached to our family, and they overdo the support and sympathy that they give us at different times, then we may gradually convert the receiving of support into an obligation – thereby demanding that this support should be given whenever we find ourselves in a difficult situation, expecting that it is our parents or family’s duty to deal with the situation. In fact, these two things create a weak personality.
Through the practice of Aparigraha, we learn to live with our family, without undue attachment, and with acceptance. Through the practice of Swadhyaya, we can understand our own self in a better way. By the process of self-analysis, we come to know and accept our limitations, habits, potential, etc., and accept them. With this clearer understanding of ourselves, we then know how to act appropriately in any situation, according to our abilities and needs. This avoids dependence on the decisions of others for our well-being, which, in general, are based only on guesswork or an estimate. Hence, through the practice of Aparigraha and Swadhyaya, we learn to live our lives with independence and without the need for support and sympathy.
POOR EGO FUNCTION (ASTEYA AND TAPAS)
The third cause of depression is poor ego function. The ego is an important component of the mind. The main work of the ego is to maintain good adjustment and control between the id (unconscious ego) and super ego (conscious ego). If the ego does not have a good and strong control over these aspects, then there will be an imbalance in our personality, which will give more emphasis either to the social needs or the biological needs. Through the practice of Asteya, we can develop a strong ego function. The practice of Asteya gives the confidence to make an honest decision in the adjustment and control between id and super ego. Also, through the practice of Tapas, we can destroy the negative traits in our personality, and replace them with pure and positive traits, which give strength to the personality; then there is no question of poor ego function.
BEREAVEMENT (AHIMSA AND ISHWARA PRANIDHANA)
The fourth cause of depression is bereavement. Everyone who is born – will die; and we cannot stop that death. Every person, who dies, has some relations with other people, so definitely those people will feel sad because they loved that person. But the intensity of the sadness will not be the same for everyone. The intensity of sadness will be higher, when the death is one of our family members or our beloved. In this situation, a person may experience intense anger towards himself and also towards God, which expresses itself through violent behavior.
We have to think how violent action manifests in our behavior. There are definitely some violent traits in our personality, which express themselves when situations arise, which we feel we cannot manage, which overpower us, or when things are not happening as we have planned. So in these situations, when violent actions manifest in our behavior, we are affected by them.
Through the practice of Ahimsa, we understand the process of these intense reactions within us; and gradually, we can decrease or eradicate violent traits from the personality. Through the practice of Ishwara Pranidhana, we can increase our positive energy. Whatever happens, it was God’s decision. We have surrendered to God. We have to think in this way, that any positive or negative event, which takes place in our life, was God’s order; and we should surrender to God. In this way, we can balance and control ourselves in any kind of problematic situation.
GUILT FEELING (BRAHMACHARYA AND SAUCHA)
The fifth cause of depression is guilt feelings. In fact, every human being feels guilt in his life. During our life, we will definitely make mistakes, which will cause us to feel guilt. Depression is mainly experienced between the ages of 20 to 50 years. As we know, the age of 12 to 22 years, is the progressive development stage. In this period, our physical, mental, emotional, and moral development takes place. So, it is obviously the time when the chance of making mistakes is high.
Because many of these developments are closely related to our sexual development, many of our guilt feelings will be related to our sexual feelings and desires. Therefore, the practice of Brahmacharya can be taken up to help control this cause of depression. Through the practice of Brahmacharya, we learn to understand and control our sexual desires; and due to this understanding and control, we can save ourselves a lot of guilt feelings.
However, if we make mistakes, which bring guilt feelings, we can use the practice of Saucha to clean the mind. We always keep our negative thoughts in the unconscious part of the mind; and these unconscious thoughts try to find irregular channels to the conscious level, creating problems. Through the practice of Saucha, we have to throw out those thoughts, not only from the unconscious, but also from our personality, in the same manner as we throw out useless matter from our computer files.
PRE-MORBID PERSONALITY (ALL YAMAS AND NIYAMAS)
The last cause of depression is the pre-morbid personality. In every personality, there are some morbid traits, which will manifest in behavior when suitable situations arise. Through the practice of all the Yamas and Niyamas, we are able to control our morbid traits. For the healthy development of the personality, these two steps of Patanjali’s Ashtanga Yoga are very important. We can sow these two seeds in our personality, as a daily or a life routine. What is necessary is the commitment to prepare oneself to understand and follow the Yamas and Niyamas.
Although it will be difficult, in the beginning, to incorporate the Yamas and Niyamas into your personality, with practice, it will become easy. When you start any new work, you think it is very hard; but when you go through the correct process, you find it is easy. In this manner, you have to start following the Yamas and Niyamas, by first bringing them into your behavioral patterns, and allowing your understanding of them to grow deeper. Gradually, they become a part of you. Suddenly, in your heart and mind, a voice will come, “Oh! It is so easy.”
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Courtesy: Dr. Rita Khanna’s Yogashaastra Studio.
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Dr. Rita Khanna
Dr. Rita Khanna is a well-known name in the field of Yoga and Naturopathy. She was initiated into this discipline over 25 years ago by world famous Swami Adyatmananda of Sivananda Ashram in Rishikesh (India).
She believes firmly that Yoga is a scientific process, which helps us to lead a healthy and disease-free life. She is also actively involved in practicing alternative medicines like Naturopathy. Over the years, she has been successfully practicing these therapies and providing succour to several chronic and terminally ill patients through Yoga, Diet and Naturopathy. She is also imparting Yoga Teachers Training.
At present, Dr. Rita Khanna is running a Yoga Studio in Secunderabad (Hyderabad, India).